While working on this question, I asked the submitter for their data, so I could play with it, and the answer was: fine, how can I share it?
I have no idea :p
Looking on SO, I saw this question, but it looks directed for people working together (as opposed to opening it on the Internet for anyone to download), and this one which is regarding making data available for an app.
This other question from meta is a request for a feature on Open Data.SO. It lists some options, but still nothing definitive.
Coming from an IT background, my first reaction for a smaller dataset would be to create a gist and upload the file. Not optimal, but it would make the data available.
How do you share data for a question?
If possible, different options for small files (several Kb to a few Mb), medium (several Mb to a few Gb) and big (several Gb) would be welcome.
Please note the question is different from this one, as I'm not asking for sharing within the site, nor where to find a specific dataset.